التصفية والتربية وفق منهج السلف الصالح

Muslim Mans garment and his beard

 

Muslim Mans garment and his beard

 

What is required in all matters concerning which people differ is to refer to the Qur’an and Sunnah in order to find out what is right and what is wrong. Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

“(And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam), if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination”[an-Nisa’ 4:59].

There are no specific dress for Muslim men to wear, only guidelines to be followed, such as; covering the awra which is navel to the knees, not being tight, see through, not resembling other peoples religious dress, not wearing for vanity, showing off..

When praying , going to the Masjid for Salah, Islamic talks, conferences, gatherings etc, one should wear Thowb, Qamees as that covers properly and is identifiable and regarded as a Muslims dress in most Muslim countries and communities.

There are two important matters in the appearance of the Muslim man that all conscious, seeker of knowledge, one who truly wants to imitate, resemble and follow the best of mankind, the last and final Messenger of Allah sallal lahu alahi wa sallam, needs to consider;

 

Al-Bukhaari reported that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: “Whatever of the izaar (lower garment) is below the ankles is in the Fire.” (al-Bukhaari, no. 5787)

 

The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)   said: “There are three whom Allaah will not look at or praise on the Day of Judgement and theirs will be a painful punishment: the one who wears his garment below his ankles, the one who reminds others of his favours, and the one who sells his product by means of making false oaths” (reported by Muslim, no. 106)

 

Hudhayfah said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) took hold of the muscle of my calf (or his calf) and said, This is where the izaar should stop; if you insist, it may be lower, but it should not reach the ankles.” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, who said this is a saheeh hasan hadeeth; see Sunan al-Tirmidhi, no. 1783)

 

The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)   said: “Isbaal (wearing ones garment below the ankles) may apply to the izaar (lower garment), the shirt or the turban. Whoever allows any part of these to trail on the ground out of arrogance, Allaah will not look at him on the Day of Judgement.” (reported by Abu Dawud, no. 4085, and al-Nisaai, no. 5334, with a saheeh isnaad).

 

Ibn Abbaas reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah will not look at the one who wears his lower garment below his ankles.” (Reported by al-Nisaai in al-Mujtabaa, Kitaab al-Zeenah, Baab Isbaal al-Izaar).

 

All of the ahaadeeth quoted above speak against isbaal, whether or not the intention is to show off; but if a person does this deliberately out of arrogance, there is no doubt that his sin is greater. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah will not look at the one who trails his izaar on the ground out of pride.” (al-Bukhaari, no. 5788)

 

Jaabir ibn Sulaym said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to me: Beware of wearing ones lower garment below the ankles, because this is a kind of showing-off, and Allaah does not love showing-off.” (Regarded as saheeh by al-Tirmidhi, no. 2722).

 

These ahaadeeth describe two different deeds, for which there will be two different punishments:

 

Imaam Ahmad reported that Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Yaqoob said: “I asked Abu Saeed: Did you hear anything from the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) concerning the izaar (lower garment)? he said, Yes, listen! The izaar of the believer should come to mid-calf, although there is nothing wrong if it comes between there and the ankles, but whatever is lower than the ankles is in the Fire, and he said it three times.”

 

Ibn Umar said: “I passed by the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and my izaar had slipped down. He said, O Abdullaah, pull up your izaar! so I pulled it up. He said, More! so I pulled it up more, and always made sure it was pulled up properly after that.” Some people asked, “To where did you pull it up?” He said, “To mid-calf length.” (Reported by Muslim, no. 2086; al-Dhahabi, Kitaab al-Kabaair, 131-132)

 

The issue of isbaal applies to women just as much as it applies to men. This is indicated by the hadeeth of Ibn Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, who said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Whoever trails his garment on the ground out of pride, Allaah will not look at him. Umm Salamah said: O Messenger of Allaah, what should women do with their hems? He said, Let them go down a handspan. She asked, What if their feet show? He said, Let them lengthen it by a cubit, but no more.” (al-Nisaa’i, Kitaab al-zeenah, Baab dhuyool al-nisaa).

 

With regards to those who use some Sahabah trailing their garment without having any pride;

 

With regard to the report of Ibn Mas‘ood, it was narrated from Abu Waa’il, from Ibn Mas‘ood, that he used to let his izaar hang low. When something was said to him about that, he said: I am a man with thin legs. Narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah in al-Musannaf, 5/166.

 

Its isnaad is jayyid, as we shall see below in the comment of al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar.

 

With regard to its meaning, it is – first of all – a report from a Sahaabi; it is not a hadeeth narrated from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). The words of a Sahaabi can only be taken as evidence to support an opinion if they do not contradict a text from the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him).

 

Moreover, there is nothing in it to suggest that he used to let his izaar hang below the ankles; rather it may be that he let it come lower than was customary among them.

 

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

With regard to the report narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah from Ibn Mas‘ood with a jayyid isnaad, according to which he used to let his izaar hang low, and when something was said to him about that he said, I have thin legs, it may be understood as meaning that he let his izaar hang lower than is recommended, which is mid-calf. It should not be thought that he went beyond that and let it come below the ankles, and the reason he gave may indicate that. Moreover, perhaps the story of ‘Amr ibn Zaraarah had not reached him. And Allah knows best. End quote. Fath al-Baari, 10/264

 

The story of ‘Amr ibn Zaraarah (may Allah be pleased with him) was narrated by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad (17817). It says that he had thin legs and he let his izaar hang low, then the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) rebuked him and told him to pull up his izaar, and he said to him: “Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, has made beautiful everything that He has created.”

Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in as-Silsilah as-Saheehah, 2682 and by Shu‘ayb al-Arna’oot in Tahqeeq al-Musnad.

 

(b)

 

With regard to the report of Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaani, the Prophet’s Sunnah takes precedence over the view of anyone else, and the words of anyone may be accepted or rejected except the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him).

 

Moreover, it may be that Ayyoob made his garment longer than mid-calf but not so long as to come below the ankle, as was said about what Ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) did, as stated above.

 

With regard to what it says in the hadeeth of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq about one side of his garment slipping and how he used to pay attention to that, and that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said to him: “You are not one of those who do that out of pride,” this does not give them any proof. Rather it counts against them, not for them. Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) used to pull up his garment and not let it drag; rather it used to slip but he did not ignore it; rather he used to pay attention to it. And one who is like Abu Bakr is excused.

 

Al-Imam adh-Dhahabi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Similarly, you see the faqeeh who is living a life of ease, when he is criticised for wearing a garment that comes below his ankles and it is said to him: The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whatever is below the ankles of the izaar is in the Fire,” – he says: He only said that concerning the one who lets his izaar drag out of pride, but I am not doing that out of pride. So you see him showing arrogance and defending his foolish action, taking a hadeeth that is general in meaning and quoting another hadeeth so as to limit the meaning of the first one to pride, and he thinks that he can get away with his isbaal on the basis of what (Abu Bakr) as-Siddeeq said: O Messenger of Allah, my izaar slips, and the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said, “O Abu Bakr, you are not one of those who do that out of pride.” But we say: Abu Bakr did not put on his izaar in such a way that it came below the ankles from the outset; rather he put it on so that it came above the ankles, then after that it slipped. And the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “The izaar of the believer comes to mid-calf and there is no problem with the area between that and the ankle.” End quote. Siyar A‘laam an-Nubala’, 3/234

 

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

With regard to those who quote to us the hadeeth of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him), we say to him: You have no proof in this hadeeth for two reasons:

 

(i)

 

Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “One of the two sides of my izaar drop unless I pay attention to it…” So he (may Allah be pleased with him) was not letting his garment drag deliberately; rather it used to loosen and drop, yet he would still pay attention to it. Those who let the garment come below the ankles and claim that they are not doing that out of pride are letting their garments hang low deliberately.

 

(ii)

 

The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) praised Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) and testified that he was not one of those who did that out of pride. Have any of these people attained such praise and such testimony? But the Shaytaan prompts some people to follow ambiguous texts of the Qur’an and Sunnah so as to justify what they are doing, and Allah guides whomever He will to the straight path. We ask Allah to guide us and keep us safe and sound.

Majmoo‘ Fataawa ash-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (12/question no. 223)

 

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him) said: With regard to the words of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) to Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (may Allah be pleased with him), when he said: O Messenger of Allah, my izaar slips unless I pay attention to it, and he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said to him: “You are not one of those who do that out of pride”, what the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) meant is that the one who pays attention to his garment if it slips, and pulls it up, is not regarded as being one of those who let the garment drag out of pride, because he did not let it hang low deliberately. Rather it may slip, so he pulls it up and pays attention to it. Undoubtedly such a person is excused. As for the one who deliberately lets it drag, whether it is a (man’s) abayah or pants or an izaar (waist wrapper) or a thobe, he is included in this warning and he is not excused for letting his garment come below the ankles, because the saheeh hadeeths that forbid isbaal include him in their meanings. What every Muslim should do is guard against isbaal and fear Allah with regard to that; he should not let his garment hang below his ankles, following this saheeh hadeeth and seeking to avoid the wrath and punishment of Allah. And Allah is the source of strength. Majmoo‘ Fataawa ash-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 6/383

 

With regard to their saying that the warning only applies to the one who lets his garment hang below to the ankles out of pride, it does not seem that it is correct, because there is a warning against merely letting the garment come below the ankles, and there is another warning against letting the izaar drag out of pride. It is not possible to interpret the general report in terms of the specific report in this case because there are two different actions with two different punishments, and those whom the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) rebuked were not people of arrogance and pride.

 

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

In these hadeeths we see that letting the garment come below the ankles out of pride is a major sin; as for letting the garment come below the ankles for a reason other than pride, the apparent meaning of the hadeeths is that it is also haraam. Fath al-Baari, 10/263

 

Ibn al-‘Arabi al-Maaliki (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

It is not permissible for a man to let his garment come past his ankle and say, “I am not doing that out of pride,” because the prohibition on that was clearly stated (in the hadeeth) and the reason for it was stated. So he cannot say, “I am not among those to whom the hadeeth refers because the reason for the prohibition does not apply to me,” because this is going against sharee‘ah and it is a claim that cannot be accepted. Rather because of his pride he is making his garment and izaar long, so he is definitely lying in his claim. ‘Aaridat al-Ahwadhi, 7/238

 

This was quoted, with some slight differences in wording, by Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him), who commented on it by saying:

The point is that isbaal implies letting the garment drag, and letting the garment drag implies pride, even if the one who is wearing it did not intend it as such. This is supported by the report narrated by Ahmad ibn Munayyi‘ via another isnaad from Ibn ‘Umar in the hadeeth which he attributed to the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): “Beware of letting the izaar drag, for letting the izaar drag is a sign of pride.” Fath al-Baari, 10/264

 

As-San‘aani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

The hadeeths indicate that whatever is below the ankles is in the Fire, which signals that it is haraam; they also indicate that the one who lets his izaar drag out of pride, Allah will not look at him, which also signals that it is haraam and that the punishment for pride is a specific punishment, which is that Allah will not look at him. This demonstrates that the view that it is not haraam unless it is done out of pride is not valid. Isteefa’ al-Aqwaal fi Tahreem al-Isbaal ‘ala ar-Rijaal, p. 26

 

The view that it is haraam is the view favoured by most of our contemporary scholars, such as Shaykh Ibn Baaz, Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, Shaykh Ibn Jibreen, Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, the scholars of the Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas and others.

 

 

The Beard

Shaving the beard is haraam because of the saheeh ahaadeeth that clearly state this, and because of the general application of texts that forbid resembling the kuffaar.

The Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) indicates that it is obligatory to let the beard grow and that it is haraam to shave it or cut it. It was narrated in al-Saheehayn that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Cut the moustache and let the beard grow; be different from the mushrikeen.” (al-Bukhaari, al-Libaas, 5442; Muslim, al-Tahaarah, 382)

 

Al-Bukhaari, Muslim and others narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Trim the moustache and leave the beard.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5443; Muslim, 600.

According to another report: ‘Be different from the mushrikeen: cut the moustache and let the beard grow.” Narrated by Muslim, 602.

 

And Muslim (383) narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Trim the moustache and let the beard grow; be different from the Magians (Zoroastrians).”

 

Shaykh Muhammad al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Cutting anything from the beard goes against the command of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who said: “Leave the beard alone”, “Let the beard grow,” etc. Whoever wants to follow the command of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and follow his teaching should not remove anything from his beard at all, because the teaching of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is that nothing should be removed from the beard. This was also the way of the Prophets before him. Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 11/126.

 

Some of the scholars are of the view that it is permissible to remove anything more than a “handful” of the beard [the hair of the beard that comes beneath the hand if the beard is seized in the hand], basing that on the action of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him). Al-Bukhaari (5892) narrated: When Ibn ‘Umar did Hajj or ‘Umrah he would take hold of his beard and would trim any excess.

 

Shaykh Ibn Baaz said: Whoever quotes the action of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) to show that he used to cut whatever of his beard was longer than the “handful” during Hajj cannot use this as evidence, because this is ijtihaad on the part of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him), and proof is to be found in reports (from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)), not from ijtihaad. The scholars (may Allaah have mercy on them) clearly stated that the reports from the Sahaabah and those who came after them that are proven to be sound are what constitute evidence and proof, and they take precedence over any opinion if it goes against the Sunnah.

Fataawa wa Maqaalaat al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 8/370.

 

 

One of these reports is the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Be different from the mushrikeen: let your beards grow and trim your moustaches.” According to another report: “Trim your moustaches and let your beards grow.” There are other hadeeth which convey the same meaning, which is to leave the beard as it is and let it grow long, without shaving, plucking or cutting any part of it. Ibn Hazm reported that there was scholarly consensus that it is an obligation (fard) to trim the moustache and let the beard grow. He quoted a number of ahaadeeth as evidence, including the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) quoted above, and the hadeeth of Zayd ibn Arqam in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever does not remove any of his moustache is not one of us.” (Classed as saheeh by al-Tirmidhi). Ibn Hazm said in al-Furoo’: “This is the way of our colleagues [i.e., the Hanbalis].”

 

Is it haraam (to shave it)?

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The Qur’aan, Sunnah and ijmaa’ (scholarly consensus) all indicate that we must differ from the kuffaar in all aspects and not imitate them, because imitating them on the outside will make us imitate them in their bad deeds and habits, and even in beliefs, which will result in befriending them in our hearts, just as loving them in our hearts will lead to imitating them on the outside. Al-Tirmidhi reported that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “He is not one of us who imitates people other than us. Do not imitate the Jews and Christians.” According to another version: “Whoever imitates a people is one of them.” (Reported by Imaam Ahmad) ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab rejected the testimony of the person who plucked his beard. Imaam Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said in al-Tamheed: “It is forbidden to shave the beard, and no one does this except men who are effeminate” i.e., those who imitate women. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a thick beard (reported by Muslim from Jaabir). It is not permitted to remove any part of the beard because of the general meaning of the texts which forbid doing so.

 

 

 

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